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Animal Ethics summarizes the research discussing which animals are conscious: “Given the criteria we have for considering whether a being is conscious, it is reasonable to conclude that vertebrates and a large number of invertebrates are conscious. The clearer cases are those of animals who have a centralized nervous system whose central organ (basically, a brain) has some development. However, there are a number of animals who possess centralized nervous systems whose central organ is not quite developed. In these cases doubts may arise about whether they are conscious or not.” —Animal Ethics. What Beings Are Conscious?

Even if there are not gradations of consciousness, there may be gradations in the intensity of various feelings between species or organisms, as there clearly are gradations of pain and pleasure for individuals.

We use the term “likely” here, but we are not committed to the view that which beings are conscious is an objective fact in the universe. We think it makes sense to think of consciousness as a “definitional category” like Brian Tomasik suggests in his essay, “ Dissolving Confusion About Consciousness .” The difference in these two views doesn’t have major implications for this essay, but it could make a significant difference in one’s conclusions when making judgments about how much various beings matter.

In fact, a large proportion of the research on animal sentience simply assumes that the animals being studied feel certain things, then uses that to answer questions relevant to other purposes. Much less of the research is actually intended to explore animals’ cognitive and sensory abilities as such. See Proctor, H. S., Carder, G., Cornish, A. R. (2013). Searching for animal sentience: a systematic review of the scientific literature . Animals, 3(3), 882-906.

“Animal welfare research: This project will create a framework for measuring the relative welfare of the most commonly farmed animals, incorporating four dimensions: animal’s neurological capacity to experience pain, the extent to which animal’s environment stimulates that capacity, the duration for which animals experience that environment, and the number of animals within that environment. This research, in creating quantifiable terms in which the average welfare of one animal might be compared to another, hopes to inform strategies for maximizing total animal welfare.” —ACE. Planned Research .

This is apparent in summaries of the literature, which give disproportionate space to mammals and especially to primates. “There are as many approaches to studying animal cognition as there are definitions of cognition itself… The diversity is also apparent in the wide range of species to be found between these covers. Of course there are many chapters on primates, and especially the great apes, reflecting our human-centered interest in our closest relatives, but there are also chapters that touch on cognition in animals as diverse as earthworms, antelopes, dogs, spiders, dolphins, bees, fish, hyenas, snakes, sea lions, prairie dogs, virtual organisms, parrots, rats, ravens, and squirrels, to name a few.” —Bekoff, M., Allen, C., Burghardt, G. M. (2002). The cognitive animal: Empirical and theoretical perspectives on animal cognition. MIT Press

High throughput sequencing

Inductive matrix completion

Long intergenic non-coding RNAs

Long non-coding RNAs

Non-negative matrix factorization

Robust inductive matrix completion

Stable robust inductive matrix completion

Single nucleotide polymorphism

Transcriptor factor binding sites

Term frequency inverse document frequency

We express deepest gratitude to Dr. Kytai Nguyen in Bioeengineering Department at University of Texas at Arlington for the comments and feedback on our lincRNAs discovery results.


Not applicable.

Availability of data and materials

The ChIP-base dataset is available at . The Linc2GO dataset is available at: Clarks freckle ice Brick wjBKT
. The SNP-lincRNA data can be found at: .

About this supplement

This article has been published as part of Volume 10 Supplement 5, 2017: Selected articles from the IEEE BIBM International Conference on Bioinformatics Biomedicine (BIBM) 2016: medical genomics. The full contents of the supplement are available online at .

Authors’ contributions

AKB conceived the package and wrote the manuscript. DK and MK contributed to data analysis and programming for the experiment. CD contributed to the two-step algorithm to solve the proposed RIMC algorithm. JG provided overall supervision. All authors reviewed, edited and approved the final manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

All the datasets used in this study are from publicly available data repository. No patients samples were used or collected in this study.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( Firetrap Mens Raffles Smart Boots Shoes Ankle Hi Lace Up Slight Heel Perforation Tan cTJx2H0a
), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver( ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, USA
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, USA
Department of Computer Science, University of Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, USA
Department of Computer Science, Kennesaw State University, Marietta, USA
©The Author(s)2017

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